- Silent Voices: Preparing Deaf Children for Court
- Abuse widespread at schools for the deaf nationwide
- Decades of sex abuse plague deaf school - For generations, state's students kept secrets
- Abused Deaf Woman's Advocacy Services Providing services to Deaf and Deaf-Blind victims of sexual assault and/or domestic violence.
- Deaf Abused Woman Warrior's Web Network
- Deaf Abused Women & Children Advocacy Services Provides victim services to people who are Deaf, Hard of Hearing, Deaf/Blind, and Late Deafened.
- California Deaf-Blind Services - Strategies for Minimizing the Risk of Sexual Abuse
- Case of the New York Society for the Deaf - Group Home
- Experiences of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Visually Impaired Adults in Norway: Prevalence and Characteristics (2005)
- Jada L.Warfield is a Staff Attorney with the American Prosecutors Research Institute's National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse.
- See Gallaudet University's Library of Deaf-related resources at http://library.gallaudet.edu/dr/faq-statistics-deaf-us.html.
- For the purposes of this article, the term D/deaf will be used for both deaf and hard of hearing children. D/deaf also indicates both physical deafness and identification with Deaf culture.The term hearing-impaired gives an inference of a disability which is not culturally appropriate and should not be used.
- Christine Yoshinaga-Itano et al., Language of Early and Later-Identified Children with Hearing Loss, 102:5 PEDIATRICS 1161, 1169 (1998).
- Sharon M. Ridgeway, Abuse and Deaf Children: Some Factors to Consider, 2 CHILD ABUSE REV. 166, 167 (1993).
- Tyron Woolfe et al., Signpost to Development:Theory of Mind in Deaf Children, 73:3 CHILD DEVELOPMENT 768, 769 (2002). ("Deaf children who are born into families with a deaf communicative partner who uses a sign language are `native signers'.They have access to language even before school owing to the presence in their household of at least one fluent user of a sign language....")
- RID has chapters around the country and a listing of those chapters can be found on their web page at http://www.rid.org/index.html.
- Mickey Flodin, SIGNING ILLUSTRATED:THE COMPLETE LEARNING GUIDE 9 (Berkley Publishing Group eds., 1994).
- Rachel I. Mayberry, Cognitive Development in Deaf Children:The Interface of Language and Perception in Neuropsychology, in HANDBOOK OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 71, 78 (S.J. Segalowitz and I.Rapin eds., 2002).
- Jo Anne Simon, Symposium:The Use of Interpreters For the Deaf and the Legal Community's Obligation to Comply with the A.D.A., 8 J.L. & HEALTH 155, 162 (1993-94).
- Id. at 164.
- SeeYoshinaga-Itano, supra note 4, at 1161. [Emphasis added].
- For more information about CDIs, please visit http://www.rid.org/cdip.html.
- For more information about body language, deaf victims, and trial, please see Suzanna Tiapula, Learning to Read the Signs: Prosecution Strategies for Child Abuse Cases with Deaf Victims and Witnesses, APRI'S NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE UPDATE NEWSLETTER 18: (5) (2005).
- A good resource for educating the court is The National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Facts on Trauma and Deaf Children. For more information please visit http://www.nctsnet.org/nctsn_assets/pdfs/edu_materials/FactsonTraumaandDeafChildren.pdf.
- 160 sex-related incidents at the Washington State School for the Deaf between September 1998 and February 2001.
- At least 100 other incidents, including 14 alleged rapes, several attempted rapes and dozens of molestations over the preceding decade.
- It took a string of five reported student-on-student rapes in 1999 to spur safety improvements.
- Lack of oversight continued for decades at the 120-student school.
- Cycle of abuse: Children who were sexually assaulted by staff or other students sometimes became offenders.
- Spotty reporting: The school has an erratic record of reporting incidents to police and CPS, especially in the past.
- Policies, training lacking: Sloppy internal records and unclear procedures have hindered follow-up. Staff dismissed some reported attacks as consensual sex.
- Few outside investigations: Since 1998, Vancouver Police Department records show just 11 sex-related investigations. Few criminal charges have been filed. CPS investigated just 11 of 28 sex-related abuse reports since September 1998, often taking up to a year -- two years in one instance -- to complete reports. The delays were blamed on understaffing. CPS did not fault the school for poor supervision in a single case of student-on-student sexual abuse.
- Offenders on campus: Convicted sex offenders can remain at the school at the superintendent's discretion. Sexually aggressive students, including at least three convicted sex offenders, have been allowed to stay on campus and have allegedly assaulted more victims.
- Token oversight : An appointed advisory board, with no power to hire, fire or set policy, meets quarterly. The facility is not licensed, so the Department of Social and Health Services can't enforce its recommendations. The school is one of 34 small state agencies reporting directly to the governor, a mere blip on his radar.